INDIRECT SPEECH: Advanced Points

1. Reporting Past Tenses
As a rule, a speaker's past tense is reported in past perfect tense in indirect speech.

Examples:
Direct: I've just called Ana.
Indirect: He told me she had just called Ana.

Direct: I went hiking yesterday with Lois.
Indirect: She said she had gone hiking with Lois yesterday.

2. Reporting Present And Future Tenses
In cases where the speakers uses present or future tense, it can be reported in the same tense or change it after a past reporting verb.

Examples:
Direct: The sun rises in the east.
Indirect: He confirmed that the sun rises/rose in the east.

Direct: How is your report?
Indirect: Hey, I asked how is/was your report?

3. Modal Verbs in Indirect Speech
In indirect speech, the modal verbs (would, should, could, might, ought, and must) aren't changed after past reporting verbs.

Examples:
Direct: It would make me happy if we could go to Disneyland.
Indirect: James said it would make him happy if we could go to Disneyland.

Direct: You could be in danger out there.
Indirect: Thelma said I could be in danger out there.

4. Reporting (Shall I...?)
In reporting "Shall I..," there are plenty of ways to report it depending on the purpose of the speaker (asking information or offering).

Examples:
Direct: Shall I make you coffee? (offer)
Indirect: She wants to know if she should/can make you coffee.

Direct: Shall I be needed to report to the headquarters? (information)
Indirect: He wants to know if he will be needed to report to the headquarters.

5. Conditionals
Sentences with if and would are not changed after past reporting verbs.

Examples:
Direct: It would be best if we take the car.
Indirect: He said it would be best if we take the car.
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